Heaven’s Highway is the memorial tribute to the Roamin Angels who have passed on. We honor their lives and contributions and will miss them greatly.
June 22, 1944 to August 1, 1965
Second president of the ROAMIN’ ANGELS 1962-63, Pete’s life was too short, only 21 years. But boy, did he have a flair for it! He grew up in a small town in the bay area called San Geronimo. He got his first ticket from the CHP when he was 12 years old! This was a result of him running a go-cart on the local roads. With the approval of his father, the judge “threw the book” at him. Trying to make an impression, no doubt, to prevent any further crazy acts like this. Well, it didn’t work. Pete was one of the original members of the Roamin Angels and it’s second president.
“Fast” Eddie Mateo
April 26, 1936 to Dec. 14, 2002
Eddie was generous to his friends almost to a fault. He was the type of person that always reached for the dinner check. If you were in his neighborhood he would insist that you come to his house. Nothing was too good for his friends, and he had many. He is survived by his wife, Caroline.
1916 – 2001
Arlie Hanson was an icon in the community with a heart as big as he was. He was a long time member of the Roamin’ Angels and drove a ‘53 blue and white Buick. He will be missed for his dry humor and wonderful generosity. His daughter and son-in-law Sue and Larry.
Jan. 24,1950 to Feb. 24, 2003
Mike and his wife, Lynn, were longtime members of the Roamin Angels Car Club of Grass Valley, and as members they enjoyed many cross country rod runs and car shows with their fellow hot rodding buddies. Mike had just completed a three year elected board position with the club where he had made many positive contributions including spearheading the ZZ4 Raffle and Scholarship Fund and steering the club toward the Roamin Angels Annual Car Show. Mike loved building and driving classic cars and spending time with his wife and his buddies at club functions. He would instigate mischief and was often times prone to quick highway blasts in his 1957 Chevy Pro-street Panel Delivery on their many long distance road trips. He was a straight shooter, a leader, a jokester, and a great friend…he will be missed.
May 16, 1923 to October 31, 2003
Elaine was born in Oakland, California to James and Gertrude White. She has lived in Grass Valley for the last 19 years with her husband of 56 years, Don. Elaine was a member of the Soroptimist International of Nevada City, the Newcomers Club of Grass Valley, Sierra Nevada Hospital Auxiliary, The Order of the Eastern Star and a member of Sierra Presbyterian Church.
October 7, 1925 to March 28, 2004
Don Stephenson passed away on Sunday, March 28, in Grass Valley. He was 78. He was born Oct. 7, 1925, in Klamath Falls, Oregon,. He married Elaine White on July 18, 1947 in Oakland. He was a member of the Grass Valley Elks, Shriners, Masons, and the Roamin Angels Car Club. He enjoyed racing, restoration of old cars, playing pool, and spending time with his family.
Mary Lou Summers
February 18, 1940 to December 26, 2003
Mary Lou was born in Prescott, Maine. She grew up in Old Orchard Beach Maine and graduated from Old Orchard High School where she was voted Best Dressed in her class. She met her husband, Bobby on a blind date. They married on February 28, 1959. They had two daughters, Sharon and Pamela.They moved to Grass Valley in 1966. Mary worked in banking and worked as a finance manager until her retirement. She was a wonderful wife, mother, grandmother and friend. She loved spending time with her family and taking trips in their 1958 Ford Fairlane. [TOP]
June 2, 1945-October 27, 2005
Jan was born in Schenectady, N.Y. but she was raised and educated in San Jose, where she attended Del Mar High School. In the 70’s, she went to work in the Real Estate financial industry and worked for mortgage insurance and title companies. She also worked for All State and McGovern Insurance where she earned best of sales awards. Jan married Chris Mulder in 1983. They split time living in Los Gatos and Truckee, until moving to Nevada City in 1997. She enjoyed her grandchildren, her dogs, her home and gardening. She was past president and treasurer of Soroptimist International of Nevada County and a member of the Roamin Angels.
– November 2005
Ed and Yvonne joined the Roamin Angels in 2002. Ed was known as a quiet man with a broad smile. Ed purchased his 1956 Chevy 210 Post as the third owner in 1996. As a purist, he kept the car completely stock.
August 5, 1942-August 10, 2006
Henry Aguirre’s laugher and smile will live in the hearts of all who knew and loved him. He was born August 5, 1942, and lived his life with humor and dignity until his demise on August 10, 2006. Henry was born in San Francisco and lived on the peninsula until moving to Nevada City, California in 2001. He graduated from Stanford University with an engineering degree. He served as a mentor at Nevada Union High School in Grass Valley, California. In the printing industry for more than 40 years in the Bay Area, he was considered an expert in digital imaging and traveled extensively throughout the United States and Europe speaking on the subject. His hobbies included reading, live steam locomotives, street rods, fly fishing, ocean paddling and foster parenting orphaned animals. He had a passion for teaching and mentoring young people in the printing industry. He was a member of the Golden Gate Live Steams, Sacramento Valley Live Steamers, Roamin Angels and Jokers Car Clubs, Nevada City Elks, Keauhou Canoe Club & Mofo’s, both of Kona, ECV, Devil Mountain Brigade, a volunteer foster parent at San Mateo and Kona Humane Societies. He was also a member in good standing with the “Four Coconuts of Kona.” He is survived by his wife, Sandra.
James ‘Jim’ Dent
October 12, 1956-June 13, 2007
The lifelong resident of the Sacramento area and middle child of five, Mr. Dent was born Oct. 12, 1956, in Roseville, and graduated from Bella Vista High School. Coming from an extremely close family, Mr. Dent’s favorite pastime at family gatherings was being the family’s practical joker. Jim provided endless hours of entertainment with his tall tales from his “many lives lived before.” He would often begin his stories by saying “when I was a submarine captain” or “when I worked on the U boat during World War II.” He also played many tricks on his young great-niece. A man of his hands, Mr. Dent spent most of his working life in construction and recently started his own company, Northern Sierra Homes, which built homes in the eastern Sacramento area. A carpenter, he had a love for woodworking, constructing many priceless wood boxes and clocks throughout his lifetime. Jim had an immense passion for cars. Before his death, he was busy constructing a garage to house his two Mustangs, his 1940 Ford and 1957 Thunderbird. His membership in the Northern California Cruisers and Roamin Angels Car Clubs brought him many years of joy. Although cars won much of Jim’s affection, his devotion was first and foremost to the people around him. Giving all of himself whenever anyone needed anything, Jim affected the many lives of his family and friends. Jim spent most of his working life in construction, and recently started his own company Northern Sierra Homes building homes in the Eastern Sacramento area. Jim is survived by his wife, Lydia Mayberry; son, James Jr., and a large family who will miss him very much.
March 11, 1936-Dec. 7, 2008
There is no single word that can describe Will Shaw. However there are a few words that will always remind me of Will. The first is ‘gentleman.’ When he greeted you, he was polite, yet warm. He made you feel welcome, whatever the occasion. I never heard him raise his voice or rant and rave. If I ever saw him upset about a club matter, he would become serious and intense, but always in a controlled and modulated voice. It was not that he did not have strong opinions, but he always expressed them in a gentlemanly way. That was just how Will was. That brings up another word to describe Will: dedicated. Two things he did feel strongly about were our toy drive and helping with the food distribution. That is where I first got to know Will. For many years, he worked tirelessly on these programs. Even after his heart problems would have stopped a lesser man, he continued to work at them. But that was Will. He gave his whole heart, not matter what, to the things he believed in. Which brings me to the last word I will use here to describe Will: worker. I know it may seem very similar to dedicated, but they are not synonymous. There are people who talk a goodgame, who are willing to campaign for a worthy cause, but are strangely absent when the grunt labor is to be done. Will not only did the planning and organizing, but the physical labor as well. If getting out there and doing the job, even if it puts your own health in jeopardy, is a fault, then Will had that fault. I remember, after he had developed serious heart problems, seeing him grabbing heavy loads of Christmas toys to take to the cars of the people coming to pick them up when he should have been sitting and watching. I would take a bag of toys from him only to have Will grab a bag to two to take to the next person’s car. Will just could not sit there and watch others work. So I will close by using those words to describe the Will I knew, a dedicated, hard-working gentleman. We will all miss Will Shaw, but he went over and above to make this world a better place during his time here on earth. – Ron Cherry
Will was active in the Roamin Angels Car Club and the local Salvation Army of Grass Valley. Will spent countless hours every holiday season collecting toys, assembling bicycles and distributing food for many families in Nevada County He spent leisure time working in his shop restoring and making furniture and creating beautiful wood crafts. He and his shop friends were the “Woodpeckers of Penn Valley.” Will is survived by a thriving and devoted immediate family, including his wife of 49 years, Irene. As a testament to his kindness of spirit and generosity, Will also has an extended family of countless friends and loved ones whom he treated as if they were his own. He was dearly loved in turn. “Call us when you get home. You know the drill.”
– January 21, 2009
I was deeply saddened by the passing of my friend Len Koch on January 21, 2009. He was given six to twelve months to live on a recent visit to the doctor’s office. Len was experieincing heart and lung problems. Len had worked in construction most of his life and became an excellent tradesman in the field. We both spent many years working and supporting each other, as good friends and family men. Len has several children who have been a blessing to him and his wife, Rose. We were both single for a period of time and enjoyed cooking and going up to the National Hotel in Nevada City on Friday nights. We would go to listen to the music of our friend, “Rocky” Jenkins. We also took a trip to Oahu, Hawaii. About 10 years ago, I can remember someone asking Len how many years he had been married. His reply was that including all four women, forty four years. I will never forget his dry sense of humor. Most people did not understand him, but he was a wonderful human being and a good friend. I loved him like a brother. I will truly miss him and that humor. Always a friend, Dennis Bailey
Dec. 18, 1930 – May 3, 2009
Roy E. McDowell passed away peacefully in his sleep at his home in Grass Valley on May 3. He was 78. He and his wife Clare were married on July 14, 1972, in Richmond. He retired from the Contra Costa County Sanitary District in Martinez. He was a member of Madison Lodge #23 in Grass Valley, Madison Lodge in Richmond, Eastern Star, Mt. Range Lodge #18 Camptonville, Eastern Star #40, Aurora Chapter in Grass Valley, E.D.G.E. and Tractor Assoc., Roamin Angels Car Club and the Nevada County Gem and Mineral Society. His hobbies were old engines and tractors, rocks and gems and classic cars. He loved talking with everyone and was so proud of his family.
June 1942-June 2009
Rich had always had the car bug and when he found a 63 T-bird at a great price he grabbed it. Much to his dismay, he found that there was a reason for the low price and he really didn’t have time or money for a full blown restoration. He wasn’t about to give up though. He just changed plans and the T-bird became a bit-at-a-time project. It also gave him the excuse to join the Roamin Angels Car Club. When Lou Kosher decided that he wanted to sell his 55 Chevy, Sandi shoved Rich real hard, and Rich bought it. Rich’s health prevented him from doing all the work on the TriFive that he wanted to do. Now, with Rich’s passing, Sandi is determined to finish the Chevy and drive it. Rich is survived by his wife of 43 years, Sandi; daughter Celeste; and two sons, Matt and Mike; and grandchildren, Morgan, Jonathan, Courtney, Megan, Jeremy, Cameron and E.J. The web site caringbridge.org/visit/richschilling is a wonderful source for Sandi’s messages during Rich’s illness and the hundreds of tributes and good wishes from all of Rich’s many friends. This kind and gentle man will be missed by many, but his spirit will live on in our hearts.
July 26, 1941-May 24, 2010
Joseph Donald Saso died May 24 at his home, with his children by his side. He was 68. He spent many years of his life in Boulder Creek, and retired in Grass Valley to be close to family. Joe was a member of the Roamin Angels Car Club and loved to repair and race cars. He was always there to lend a helping hand and loved his dog, Rocky. He will be missed by all his family and friends.
March 21, 1935- Feb 26, 2011
In 1998, Joe and his wife, Carol, relocated from San Carlos to Nevada City to enjoy retirement and be near his family, especially his grandchildren. Joe was an easy going soul who even after retirement continued to work hard. Often, he could be found building bird houses or tinkering on his perfectly manicured lawn. Joe enjoyed many activities as a member of the Roamin Angels, especially showing his ’57 T-Bird and ’49 Plymouth. Joe was a regular with Habitat for Humanity, even becoming Volunteer of the Year. He also enjoyed his volunteer work at St. Patrick’s Church and Mount Saint Mary’s School. Most early mornings, Joe could be found at the gym and Starbucks, socializing with his buddies before starting his day.
January 2, 1943 – March 28, 2011
September 1986, Sandra married the love of her life, Henry Aguirre, they had twenty five wonderful years together. Sandra was preceded in death by her husband Henry in 2006. Sandra supported many charities including UC Davis Cancer, UC Davis Retinal Eye Center, SPCA (cats). Her greatest joy in life was her cats Rudy, Misty, Daisy and Hula, who came over from the big island of Hawaii.
Beverly Ann Bagley-Homan-Traina
October 7, 1937 – August 20, 2011
Bev Homan-Traina, 73, of Grass Valley passed away August 20, 2011 after a long struggle with cancer. Her friends and family had been surrounding her with love & prayers up to the time of her passing. Bev met and married Phil Traina in January 2001, on Traina’s Hill in Grass Valley, CA. They enjoyed traveling in their trailer, visiting historical points of interest and their families across the western states. They belonged to the Nevada City Elks Club, the Roamin Angels Car Club with their 1931 Ford Coupe, and the Lee Vining Fishing Group. Bev enjoyed spending time with her Wednesday Night Women’s Poker Group and her “Red Hatter’s” group.
July 7, 1954 – September 3, 2012
On September 3, 2012, surrounded by David, her husband of 37 years and son Aubri, Kathy Giguere passed away at home after a battle with breast cancer. Kathy was born July, 7, 1954 to John and Norma Jean Kitta in Oakland, Calif. She married David Giguere on May 31, 1975 in Newark, Calif. They moved to North Columbia in 1973, where her son was born in 1979. She worked in the classroom at Twin Ridges School District, was a site director for 4-H Afterschool program, and a child advocate for KidzCount – PCAC. She loved to work in her garden, ride her motorcycle, and dance to live music. Kathy volunteered for many events to support the children of Nevada County. Kathy was a long time member of the Sierra Club, SYRCL, and the Roamin’ Angels Car Club.
March 8, 1929 – June 10, 2013
Manny Vierra passed away June 10, 2013, peacefully at home in Nevada City, Calif. He was 84. Manny was born in Auburn, Calif., on March 8, 1929. He married his loving wife of 39 years, Winnie Vierra, in 1974 in Las Vegas, Nev. He was very involved with the Roamin Angels and the Buick Club of Sacramento. He loved restoring old classic cars and riding free on his Harley. He is survived by his beloved wife, Winnie; his children Cathy Iwamoto, Dannielle Crow, Jeff Vierra, Lynn Gill and Diana Solomon, in addition to his seven grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. He is preceded in death by his son Ron Vierra. Manny’s motto to live by was – “Live to ride — ride to live”.
February 20, 1940- June 21, 2013
Russ Knapp passed away at home with his wife, Dee, by his side on June 21, 2013, after fighting a courageous battle with cancer. A longtime resident of San Jose, Russ was employed with Lockheed Martin for 38 years before retiring in 1996. He was a member of the Roamin Angel’s Car Club and was a classic car enthusiast and an avid outdoorsman.
November 14, 1937 – April 19, 2014
Donald Day passed away peacefully on April 19, 2014 at his home in Draper, Utah. He was 76. He had his wife and step-daughter by his side. Soon after Don and his wife, Marty, moved to Utah from Grass Valley, Don was diagnosed with cancer. Don was born in Oakland and lived his childhood years in Los Altos, CA. Don was in the Air Force and served at Vandenburg and Cape Caniveral working on rocket engines. Don went on to work for Stanford University at their SSRL science lab for 28 years until he retired. He became interested in cars at an early age and bought and sold over 80 cars in a period of 50 years. He was a past president of the Nor Cal Shelby Club and Vintage raced the #03 Shelby and many other race cars during the 70’s and 80’s. Don and his wife Marty moved to Grass Valley in 2000 and lived there for 13 years. Don immediately joined the Roamin’ Angels car club and remained a member until his death. He loved attending car shows and doing car events with fellow Roamin’ Angels. He had a 1940 Ford Pick-up, a 1939 Ford Convertible Sedan and a 1950 Willys Jeepster.
Paul Clifford “Cliff” Swenson Jr.
July 18, 1938 – April 23, 2014.
Cliff was born July 18, 1938, in Colorado to Paul Swenson Sr. and Bernice Danielson. He moved to Grass Valley when he was 9 years old and attended local schools, graduating from Nevada Union High School. He started work as a newspaper delivery boy for The Union. He was a carpenter’s assistant at The Empire Mine and worked for The Grass Valley Group for 29 years. He was a rockhound, was a president of Nevada County and Sutter Buttes Gem and Mineral Societies and assisted Eagle Scouts to obtain the order of the Arrow. He was active in the Grass Valley Elks and the Knights of Columbus.
May 27, 1944 – July 23, 2014
Nancy was born on May 27, 1944 in Berkeley, Calif. to Ralph (Raul) and Olga Miranda. She was a graduate of Albany High class of 1961. She was a long time resident of Pinole, Calif. before relocating to Grass Valley, Calif. in 1999. Nancy loved her grandchildren, cooking, craftwork, gardening, classic cars, collecting pigs and entertaining her family and friends. She was a member of the Roamin Angels Car Club in Grass Valley, Red Hat Society Downieville Dames, ECV Widder 1849 in Downieville, Naomi Parlor #36, Native Daughters of the Golden West in Downieville, Honorary Bonneville Bad Babe and The Diana’s. Beloved wife of Bob Gray, loving mother of Coren and Danny Quick, Robert Gray and Robin and Greg Chaloner, beloved Gammie to Kyleigh Quick, Jaxson and Jacob Chaloner, sister to Janet Hiatt, sister-in-law to Ray Hiatt and Marilyn Granholt, nephew and nieces, she was also known as a second mom to many. Anybody and everybody that knew her always felt her warm embrace even though she was going through a tough time. She always put everyone first ahead of herself and made sure you were well taken care of. The world has a lost an amazing woman and heaven has gained a beautiful angel.
May 26, 1936 – Sept. 10, 2014
Lynn Price passed away on Sept. 10, 2014, doing what he loved most; working on his favorite hot rod. Lynn was born in Fresno, Calif. His parents were Warren Price and Euna Price. He attended school in Fresno and as a young man, he would work with his dad on the pipeline sharing half of the laborer’s paycheck with his brother. At Fresno High School, he excelled at football and organized his own band playing steel guitar. He would often be late for football practice because he was working on a car, and the coach would have to send someone to retrieve him. In 1956, he married Louisa French in Eureka. Their son, Jack, was born in Feb. of 1957 and their daughter, Debbie, in 1959. He continued to work on the pipeline until 1962. He obtained his real estate license and moved to San Jose. In 1983, they moved to Grass Valley. He had many interests and he was quite the outdoorsman. He had a deep passion for fishing, hunting, riding snowmobiles and motorcycles. He loved sharing his appreciation and knowledge of the outdoors with his kids and grandkids. He has had a lifelong love of building hot rods. At 22 years old, he was featured in Rod Builder magazine. In his semi-retirement, he built three hot rods. He couldn’t wait to get up in the morning and get down to his workshop. He was known for taking a rusty old piece of metal and turning it into a beautiful showpiece. It was clear that he was a perfectionist and showed a lot of pride in everything that he did. Lynn was a member of the Roamin’ Angels for 25-plus years. He thoroughly enjoyed all of the hot rod lifestyle; the car shows, events, and also the weekly breakfasts with his friends. His showmanship was evident; not only in his cars but his home and property as well. His greatest pride was his family and he loved them all very much. He is survived by his wife of 58 years, Lou.
May 20, 1928- March 6, 2014
Herta loved working, her family, her dogs and her ’65 Chevy. She belonged to the Roman Angels Car Club for many years. She had a terrific sense of humor and quick wit. She will be greatly missed by her family and all who knew her
– October 26, 2015
Norm always conducted himself with the highest of ethics, and always acted with grace and generosity. He was a man of conviction and held his principles high. He treasured his family and his friends and enjoyed being a member of the Roamin Angels, cruising with the group to car shows and events. Norm also helped out annually with the car show. He also helped organize various events for Vets.
Oct. 24, 1925 – Apr. 9, 2015
Justin was born in Boyle Heights, California. He graduated high school in Gardena, California and then joined the Army Air Corps and was a navigator in World War II. After his service, he went to work for McDonnell Douglas in Hawthorne, CA. He then married the love of his life, Jeanne, in 1947. They had two children, Karin and younger brother Karl. In 1953 he left the aircraft industry and went to work for the Los Angeles Fire Department for the next 20 years. He then retired and continued in his favorite pastimes of fishing and woodworking/antique furniture repair. After 58 years of marriage, Justin lost his wife and moved to Grass Valley to be close to his daughter. He soon bought a classic car and joined the Roamin’ Angels in 2006. He was the oldest member of the club at that time and very active. He loved taking his “baby”, a 1956 Bel Air, on rod runs, mystery tours and visiting convalescent homes. He was the adopted “dad” for a few people in the club. He also zip-lined at the age of 80 when on a cruise through the Panama Canal. He was always up for everything.
Richard “Dick” Tremewan
Feb. 18, 1939 – Aug. 26, 2015.
The Tremewan family has a long history in beautiful Nevada County. On Feb. 18, 1939, Dick was born to John and Marion (Thomas) Tremewan and became a 5th generation resident of Nevada County. He attended Union Hill School and was a Nevada Union High School football player and graduated with the Class of 1957. After high school, he went to school at Modesto Junior College where he met Carol Funk. They were married on Feb. 14, 1959 in Modesto. In 1964, Dick and Carol moved back to Grass Valley and have resided in the family home on Chapel Street which was homesteaded in 1845 by Dick’s great-great-grandfather.
There was nothing that made Dick happier than the days his family stopped by the house to visit with him, go for a ride in his old car and share the news of what they’d been up to. Dick had many hobbies he shared with this family and our community including flying, woodworking, restoring old cars, fishing and spending time outdoors. He was a member of the Roamin Angels and never missed a local car show; oftentimes attending the same show several times a day.
January 3, 1941 – April 17, 2017
Bob was born in Oakland, CA. He proudly served in the U.S. Navy and retired from Lawrence Livermore Lab after 34 years of service. Bob loved his grandchildren, NASCAR, restoring cars, attending car shows and virtually anything to do with hot rods. But most of all, Bob loved his family. He was the commander for the Devil Mountain Brigade, ECV Downieville #1849 – XNGH 20, member of the Roamin Angels, Elk’s Lodge #518 and Odd Fellows Lodge #16. Bob was well liked by many, always lent a helping hand, was a good friend and always shared his opinion. Bob’s legacy, stories and laughter will be missed by all.
May 4, 1945- June 5, 2017
Barbara was born in San Jose, California, where she worked for her family’s business, Bee Ritchie’s, in Sunnyvale. She retired in 1992. Barbara loved her family and friends. She provided daycare for all four of her grandchildren until they started kindergarten. Barbara looked forward to the holidays when she would make her specialty candies like Rocky Road, Turtles, Pretzels and Strawberries which earned her the nickname “Candy Grandma”. Barbara loved the many events and trips, car shows, cruises with the Roamin Angels where she would bring her beloved 1934 Ford pick up. Barbara was liked and loved by many. She always put others before herself and everyone loved her infectious laugh. Barbara will be missed by all who knew and loved her, especially her husband of fifty-three years, Dale. God speed as she enters ‘heaven’s highway’.
October 31, 1942- August 9, 2018
Linda Murphy Pritchard was born October 31, 1942. She was the younger daughter to Marguerite and Robert Murphy. She is survived by her husband, John, her sister, Gail, her son, Robb, three step-daughters, Denise, Stephanie and Danielle, and 12 grandchildren. Anyone who knew Linda for more than 5 minutes would have known that she had many passions. Some of her passions were reading, volunteering, cooking, baking, politics, Starbucks and computers. It is very likely that she was more technically savvy than some of her and John’s kids and grandkids. She was fiercely independent and extraordinarily loving, caring and compassionate. She was also tough as nails. Many of us learned many life lessons by watching her tackle various things in her life. She never once stopped fighting after her cancer came back in 2013. She documented all the places she traveled to over the last 5 years by holding her “Still Alive” sign (maybe she was sending them to the doctor who told her there was no treatment for her cancer way back in 2013)? Linda loved her family and her many friends gained throughout her lifetime from her jobs, her sorority, and the car club. She loved hosting her large blended family during the holidays and spent weeks preparing by making spritz cookies, rocky road candy, and rice crispy treats. You always knew where you stood with Linda because she told it like it was. Anyone who was loved by this incredible woman is better for it. Her spirit will certainly live on in each of us through her funny stories and nuggets of wisdom shared throughout the years.